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Food security is defined as having access to sufficient amounts and safe food at all times, in order to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle. Some studies have attributed the cause of food insecurity to household incomes (Reutlinger, 1985, Rosen and Shapouri, 1998, Prinstrup-Anderseen and Pandya-Lorch, 1995). The remaining 2.5% of them ate more than three times daily. People don’t choose food insecurity. Such policies include the creation and expansion of state social safety mechanisms, incorporation of gender-sensitive issues in agricultural development, revival and adequate funding of extension services, in addition to a boost in investments to raise agricultural productivity and adapt to climate change sustainably. They are more vulnerable to malnutrition, low quality foods and sometimes complete lack of food7, in spite of the fact that they produce the bulk of food. Food insecurity refers to the state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food. Concept and Definition. Pieters et al.22 and Ecker and Breisinger6 opined that both macro and micro-level short-run and long-run measures that incorporates the macro-economic dimension which specifies key economic sectors of food security, considers external shocks and stresses to food insecurity as well as preventive intervention efforts and emphasizes the fact that nutrition outcomes are both the consequence and cause of underdevelopment should be implemented in order to ensure sustainable production and access to food by the poor. For example, many developing countries don’t have the specific education needed to know that certain chemicals, such as pesticides, insecticides, and herbicides, should only be applied during certain, According to Abraham Maslow in his theory of psychological needs postulated that food is the important basic need of man. Food is a basic necessity of life, this is due to the fact that it is a basic means of sustenance also an adequate food intake, in terms of quality and quantity, is a key to a healthy and productive life. These programmes are there to reduce poverty, eradicate hunger and improve the living conditions of the people. 2.6 Approaches to poverty alleviation. A tropical wet and dry climate prevails over the state and it has two distinct seasons, the wet and dry seasons. In Nigeria, Matemilola and Elegbede7 reported an alarmingly high prevalence of food insecurity especially among rural households. Hence, the number of meals consumed by the households does not necessarily indicate adequate food utility. As agricultural seasons are repeatedly missed and livelihoods abandoned, the … Causes of Food Insecurity in Africa. These figures were added and further divided by 5 to get mean score of 2. Attempt was made to give an overview of the fundamental threat pose by insecurity of food on the people; these include: a moral and humanitarian threat, developmental ... University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. Improving food production and sustainability in Kano state typically requires the recognition that food insecurity is a cross-sector challenge at multiple levels and as such is central to overall development. In Borno State, 64.2 percent of households are food insecure. Other perceived causes of household food insecurity include: Seasonal fluctuation in food availability due to climatic change (M = 2.27), instability in government policies (M = 2.27), poor access to credit facilities (M = 2.26), poor storage facilities (M = 2.21), high food price (M = 2.23), low income to purchase food items (M = 2.11), mismanagement of resources (M = 2.08), low level of education (M = 2.07), diseases and pests infestation on crops and animals (M = 2.07); scarcity of farmland for crop production (M = 2.04) and poor agricultural productivity due to infertility (M = 2.01). Food insecurity refers to the uncertain availability that many people face when it comes to access to different foods and beverages. Unemployment in Nigeria is one of the most critical problems. It borders Katsina state to the northwest, Jigawa state to the northeast and Bauchi and Kaduna states to the south. The major causes of household food insecurity include: Poor extension services (M = 2.46), large family size (M = 2.34) and poverty (M = 2.28). According to the 2006 census, Kano state is the most populous state in the country with a population of 9,383,683 people, 75% of who are involved in agriculture, which is the mainstay of the state17. This has the potential to raise efficiency in food crop production and increase farmers’ sustainability of food. The religious cum cultural diversity has always threatened the continued existence of the Nigerian nation as one entity. Also, the acquisition of fragmented land, mainly through inheritance affects agricultural production and poses a constraint to sustainable food security. Faced with devastating, debilitating droughts, Somalia, Nigeria, South Sudan, and Yemen struggle to cope with famine, an obstacle that hinders all people within the nation. Although the respondents produced the food they mainly consumed, but their food security situation deteriorated. The fragmentation of agricultural land, the results of increases in population and land acquisition through inheritance causes inadequate food production. Key words: Food Security and Insecurity, Household, Security Challenges, Climate Change and Farm Produce. Even though the percentage food insecure people in … In Yemen, 18.8 million are in need of assistance, and in South Sudan, over 40% of the population is in need of food urgently, while 100,000 are in imminent danger of death by starvation. Food Security The weak judicial system causes insecurity in Nigeria. Also, data in Table 1 further showed that maize (79.2%), sorghum (40.8%), millet (34.2%) and rice (32.5%) are the main crops commonly consumed in the study area. Household food security is the application of this concept to individuals within households2,3. To get the mean values used for the decision rule, 0.05 was added to 2 and also subtracted by 2 to give 1.95. To ascertain perceived causes of household food insecurity, a five point Likert-type scale was used. The majority (86.7%) of the respondents consumed carbohydrate foods, which includes rice, Tuwo shinkafa, cornflour, gero and yam among others while 74.0% consumed protein foods, which includes bean cake (moi moi ), meat, fish and sour milk (fura da nono), among others. The paper is aimed at estimating the likelihood of food insecurity among some selected households in Kano State of Nigeria using the Binary choice modeling Technique, specifically the Logit. Also, there is a distinction between chronic and temporary food insecurity. Haile et al.13 reported that large family size causes food insecurity since food requirements increase in relation to the number of persons in a household. Current levels of food insecurity in the four countries reflect continued underinvestment in agriculture and livelihoods within the wider humanitarian and development fields. Causes of Insecurity in Nigeria. On the other hand, long-run solutions involve creating food production and distribution systems that assure adequate access of the poor to food through income generation, nutrition and health education and an efficient supply system for food, either domestically produced or imported. This study discovered that poor extension services, large household size and unstable government policies were major causes of the rural farming households’ food insecurity situation. Although Nigeria, the giant of Africa, describes her heterogeneity as a situation of “Unity in Diversity”, it has become, INTRODUCTION Thus, adequate food availability, accessibility and utilization-elements of food security-become threatened, with the result that such households become food insecure. The study was conducted in Kano state between April and December, 2010. Nigerians lack enthusiasm for local products and often consider them inferior to imported food products. Conflict and drought are forcing people to abandon their homes and their lands. Food insecurity may be chronic, seasonal or transitory. This report will explore the impacts, causes and solutions of food insecurity and other contextual factors relating to Chad’s economic and financial crisis. Widespread Material Inequalities: Another driver of food insecurity in 2020 is the ongoing desert locust infestation in East Africa. According to Ibrahim et al.21, due to the increasing prices of food in Nigeria, the quality and quantity of food intake among households has continued to decrease and a large proportion of households earning is being spent on food. Causes Of Food Insecurity In Nigeria 1107 Words | 5 Pages. 1. Causes Of Food Insecurity In Nigeria 1107 Words5 Pages Current levels of food insecurity in the four countries reflect continued underinvestment in agriculture and livelihoods within the wider humanitarian and development fields. Kano state has 44 local government areas. Also, access to various inputs needed for agricultural production is limited. Resources Control Struggle: 5. Despite this, more than half of the country lives below the poverty line. The respondents were asked to indicate the types of food produced and consumed by them in the last one year. Data collection and analysis: Primary data for this study were collected from crop farming households through the use of structured interview schedule, comprising closed and open-ended questions. Furthermore, Adegboye8 attributed the deteriorating food security situation to poor agricultural policies affecting adequate food production in Nigeria which could be the case in Kano state. When a man is satisfied with his needs for food he pursues other needs of clothing and shelter. While some school of thought mirror poverty from absolute perspective and conclude that it is possible to, at some point been regarded as her strength but it currently is perceived to be the crack which may cause a predicted break-down. The remote, immediate causes of Crimes, Insecurity/Terrorism and Instability in Nigeria and Solutions. The wet season lasts between May and early October while the dry season lasts between November and April. Since the households in the study area have low extension contact in a year, they may have limited knowledge in agricultural technology techniques needed to boost food production. This post examines the insecurity challenges in Nigeria as well as its impact on the development of the country. In the first stage, 6 rural local government areas were purposively selected from the 38 rural local government areas in the state on the basis of their intensity in crop production. Causes and Consequences Food Insecurity in Nigeria: A Thematic Exposition On the other hand; food security ... Borno and Yobe states, excluding other northeastern states in Nigeria. The outrageous profits from the oil boom encouraged wasted expenditures in the public sector; dislocation of employment factor also distorted the revenue bases for policy planning. Most of the people involved in threatening the security of Nigeria are … This statistic is particularly concerning because it is … Causes of Insecurity in Nigeria: #3: Corruption. Sub-Saharan Africa contributes most to the global level of food insecurity. Others include rice (36.7%), cowpea (35.8%) and tomatoes (35.8%). Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean scores were used to analyze the data. Boko Haram, the Islamist extremist group, has rampaged across the region for years, forcing more than two million people to flee their homes and farms. In Nigeria, food is important also because it accounts for a substantial … 2.3 Poverty alleviation in Nigeria. Food security is a broad concept that encompasses food production, accessibility and utilization. The major cause, however, for much of the food insufficiency in Nigeria is the conflict and violencewhich has been largely due to ethnic and religious tensions in the northeast of the country. It would further encourage trained extension personnel to disseminate relevant information to farmers regarding improving their farming methods and techniques by introducing new varieties of crops and improved breeds of animals which will improve their income and thus reduce the level of their food insecurity. 3 Causes of Hunger in Niger Niger is a landlocked country in sub-Saharan Africa that struggles to feed its population. Food insecurity is a multifaceted problem. Values assigned to these options were 4, 3, 2, 1 and 0, respectively. Carbohydrate containing food is a staple energy–giving food in Nigeria and households in the area probably consume more often so as to be energetic to carry out farming activities. This is worse during a public health emergency such as … Kano state has more than 18,684 km2 of cultivable land and is the most irrigated in the country15. In fact, the food and agriculture organization describes it as a “condition which exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” and when it is not at undue risk of losing such access1. Across the border of Niger and Nigeria… Classes of food consumed: Entries in Table 2 indicated the type of food consumed in the study area. The major cause of insecurity in Nigeria is attributed to ethnicity and religion. It lies between latitudes 9°30' and 10°33' North of the equator and longitudes 7°34' and 9°25' East of the Greenwich Meridian. Current levels of food insecurity in the four countries reflect continued underinvestment in agriculture and livelihoods within the wider humanitarian and development fields. Conflict and drought are forcing people to abandon their homes and their lands. In Nigeria, it is important to note that the root cause of food insecurity, especially among low-income households, is poverty. Food insecurity is a multifaceted problem. The locusts are causing large-scale crop damage as 1 km2 swarms can eat the same amount of food as 3500 people in one day. When the cost of food is high, households especially those with low income, do not afford good quality food. Also, the major crops produced were cereals such as maize, sorghum and millet, among others. 2.5 Poverty alleviation. The amount of food insecure households is highest in the rural region of Borno in Nigeria. The displacement of people in Nigeria has increased to the concern of food insecurity. Poverty reduces productivity and as such prevents people from producing or acquiring the food they need. Energy … There is urgent need for policy makers in Kano state to implement pro-poor agricultural policies that would reduce farmers’ vulnerability to food insecurity. The study found that the root causes of food insecurity include: poverty, corruption and national policies that do not promote equal access to food for all; and also that the … By Don Okereke donnuait@yahoo.com, +2347080008285[/b] Introduction Time and space will not permit one to expound all the raison d' etre for the unprecedented trend in kidnappings, instability and insecurity/terrorism in Nigeria. Food insecurity, poor conditions of health and sanitation and inappropriate care and feeding practices are the major causes of poor nutritional status. However, it should be noted that consuming mostly carbohydrate containing food could result to malnutrition. Insecurity in Nigeria: Causes, Effects, and Solution. The major causes of household food insecurity include: Poor extension services (M = 2.46), large family size (M = 2.34) and poverty (M = 2.28). Study design: A multi-stage random sampling technique was employed in selecting respondents for the study. Famine in Four Countries Cereals were the major crops grown in the area and this finding is in agreement with Dirorimwe18, who noted that Kano state is famous for its grain production in the country. As agricultural seasons are repeatedly missed and livelihoods abandoned, the … The study will also help to identify the food insecure as target groups and would give a better understanding of the causes of food insecurity as policy instruments for development planners so as to design effective food security programmes. Information were collected on age, occupation and sex of household head including other household characteristics such as monthly income, crops produced and consumed and perceived causes of household food insecurity. Concept and Definition. Other specific objectives include examining the causes and effects of food insecurity in Nigeria, identifying policies formulated, and evaluating the policies in order to make appropriate recommendations. 5. “Food insecurity is a situation that exists when people lack secure access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and healthy life” (Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, 2015). Though most of the households ate three meals daily, the quality and quantity of the food consumed determines their food security status. This situation requires that particular factors which affect rural farming households differently must be examined and understood. As agricultural seasons are repeatedly missed and livelihoods abandoned, the humanitarian caseload builds and the number of people on the brink of, Character Analysis Of A Good Man Is Hard To Find, The Consequences Of Global Warming And Climate Change, Character Analysis Of Mal Reynolds And Serenity. Thus, variables with mean scores responses greater than or equal to 2.05 were regarded as perceived causes, while responses with mean values equal to or less than 1.95 were not regarded as perceived causes of household food insecurity. Food security exists when everyone in the population has access to enough nutritious food to live an active and health life. None of these studies … Annual rainfall varies from 600-1200 mm in the Guinea savannah to 300-600 mm in the Sudan savannah. Conflict and drought are forcing people to abandon their homes and their lands. Three major factors that contribute to hunger in Niger are overpopulation, scarce water supply and armed conflict. Current levels of food insecurity in the four countries reflect continued underinvestment in agriculture and livelihoods within the wider humanitarian and development fields. Background and Objective: Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. Food security is often times looked upon as just the availability of food, but safety and hygiene of food and food products gets overlooked. Greentumble Climate Change, Environmental Issues November 17, 2015. Conflict and drought are forcing people to abandon their homes and their lands. Similarly, Ukoha (1997) found that domestic food production was the major cause of food insecurity in Nigeria. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Elite Manipulation of Ethnicity and Religious Differences: It is important to note the diverse ethnic make-up of the country is not on itself a ... 2. This problem is a gradual outcome of lack of food which leads to malnutrition and starvation among the poorest populations of the planet. Food security can exist at global, regional, national and household levels. In addition, many Nigerians have justified the looting of the warehouses, citing the mismanagement of the palliatives. FOOD SECURITY. The causes of their food insecurity were mainly due to socio-economic and institutional barriers such as poor extension services, among others as well as policy related issues. Respondents’ perception of their household food security situation: Entries in Table 3 shows that 42.5% of the respondents believed that their food security situation was worst during the past one year, while 37.5% believed it had been a little worst. As Africa’s food security situation is getting more serious, the causes being behind it are numerous. 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